Tag Archives: Monica Corrado

The Juggling Act that is GAPS (Gut and Psychology Syndrome™) or, “Keep these three balls in the air”

three-colorful-juggling-balls-isolated-on-white-background_bv-teknjyl.jpg

As many of you know, I have been teaching how to cook nourishing, traditional foods a la Weston A. Price and Sally Fallon’s Nourishing Traditions Cookbook for more than 11 years now, since 2006. I started teaching how to cook for the Gut and Psychology Syndrome™ (GAPS) Diet in 2010, and have so far published two of my four part series on Cooking Techniques for the GAPS Diet–Meat Stock and Bone Broth, and Culturing Dairy. (Lacto-fermentation is due out by the end of this year…to be followed by Nuts and Seeds). I wrote the books with the aim to help clear up confusion about the diet and make the cooking “GAPS-style” easy. I took the training to become a Certified GAPS Practitioner in 2015, and have been working with people to heal their guts for years–young, old, and in between.

(I would like to say one thing clearly here, before I continue with this article on juggling: The GAPS diet is about the FOOD, folks. The food. Before you try all sorts of supplements and vitamins and healing modalities for your or your child’s symptoms, try the diet first. Give it time to work. Hang in there. Ask for help if you need it. It took time to get this far out of balance in your body, it is going to take time to bring it back on line. And we have seen tremendous healing happen by following the diet, by the food alone.)

Okay, back to the Juggling Act that is GAPS!

While implementing the GAPS diet, I have found that there are 3 things that you must juggle at once as you go through it—it is a balancing act, and all three parts must be maintained (kept in the air, if you will), if you are going to succeed. I am writing this article to bring this to your attention…because I know it will help in implementing the nutritional protocol, and ultimately, bring relief and speed healing.

First, Stop Injury. That means to remove all of the foods and ingredients and toxins that could further damage the lining of the small intestine. These are gluten, casein, and complex carbohydrates (aka starches), fibrous vegetables, as well as dyes, preservatives, soy, GMOs, and other food fractions that could be problematic. (For a full list, see Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride’s book.)

Second, Heal and Seal. Healing and sealing is the role of Meat Stock, that delicious, nutritious “one pot meal that heals™”. Put very simply, the amino acids provide the building blocks for healing, and the gelatin does the sealing. (In my classes, I have often used the loose analogy of a brick wall: the amino acids are the bricks and the gelatin is the mortar. You get the idea. If there are holes in the mortar, things are going to get through–in this case, into the bloodstream. Need to Heal it and Seal it!) For more information about the role of meat stock, how to make it, and why it is the only stock used during the Intro of the GAPS Diet, see my article here. (Heck, it’s so important that I wrote a whole book about it!) In order to work its healing magic, it is a good idea to drink what I call ” a therapeutic dose” of meat stock every day–at least three, but better 4-6 eight ounce cups per day. (You will drink less when you have Healed and Sealed…that is, once you graduate to the Full GAPS diet.)

Thirdly, Repopulate the Gut with Healthy Microbes. One must turn the tide of dysbiosis, a situation where pathogenic bacteria reign supreme in the intestine.  In the GAPS diet, one repopulates the gut with beneficial bacteria with FOOD. It is the role of lacto-ferments (beet kvass, cabbage tonic, sauerkraut, fruit kvass) and cultured dairy in all of its forms (yogurt, cultured cream, sour(ed) cream-raw only- and kefir). People also use probiotic supplements, to increase the number of microbes in the system quickly. (It is very easy to add another 10, 20, or even hundreds of billion lacto-bacilli when taking a pill or a powder. There is only so much kraut one can eat in a day!)

I have no problem with probiotic supplements, in fact, often the addition of a good quality probiotic can help to clear tenacious symptoms when used in concert with the food. There are even a few that I recommend (see below), specifically because they are “clean” (contain no fillers and are “GAPS compliant”). Remember that when on GAPS, a probiotic may not contain FOS, inulin, or other prebiotics. They are starches or fiber, and will either “feed the bad guys” (pathogenic bacteria or opportunistic bacteria) or they will damage the gut. (See step one above: Stop Injury. Fiber can be like sandpaper to the gut wall. Since food travels down our alimentary canal, it will hit the damaged area first–the duodenum of the small intestine–before it gets to where it can be used, the colon.) So once you have found a probiotic without prebiotics in it, be sure that it has multiple strains (more than 12 is a good place to start).

I encourage you to keep these three things in mind–in balance, actually–as you travel along the road of healing your leaky gut with the GAPS nutritional protocol. One more time with feeling, here are those three things: 1. Stop Injury. 2. Heal and Seal. 3. Repopulate the Gut with Beneficial Microbes. These three things are all equally important. For example, if you are taking hundreds of billions of probiotics every day (which I don’t recommend–more on that later), but not drinking a therapeutic dose of meat stock EVERY day, you may be winning the battle of dysbiosis, but you won’t be Healing and Sealing. If you drink your meat stock every day, but don’t cut out all the foods that are damaging, (potatoes, or grains, or sugar, for example), you are continuing to blow holes in the small intestine, and continuing to feed pathogens. The gut will never seal, (like a wound that keeps getting the band-aid ripped off) and the bad guys-pathogens-will win. Makes sense? So GAPS is a juggling act, my friends. Keep all three balls in the air, and you win. It has been my experience, as I work with all sorts of individuals wanting to heal all sorts of symptoms with this diet, that if you can keep all the balls in the air, mindful of all the pieces at once, you will have a much better chance at moving through the protocol with ease and with better returns, faster.

Until next time, keep those balls in the air, folks!

 

Probiotics that are “GAPS legal”:

Biokult

Gut Pro

Gut Pro Infant

Custom Probiotics

My Books:

Cooking Techniques for the Gut and Psychology Syndrome™ (GAPS) Diet, Part I: Meat Stock and Bone Broth

Cooking Techniques for the Gut and Psychology Syndrome™ (GAPS) Diet, Part II: Culturing Dairy

Recipe for Fruit Kvass

More information on the GAPS Diet: www.gaps.me

To work with me on implementing the GAPS Diet, schedule a free consultation here:  http://simplybeingwell.com/Consultations.html

Weston A. Price Foundation

Note: Some of the above are affiliate links. Thank you for supporting my writing.

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Lactose-free? This Yogurt’s for You!

raw-milk-yogurt-lrcf

Beautiful, silky, and lactose-free raw yogurt!

I am blessed to be living in a cow-share state, Colorado…a cow-share state is one where individuals can access delicious, nutritious, clean, fresh raw milk. I am also blessed to be a part of a cow-share at a biodynamic dairy farm in Boulder, Light Root Community Farm.

 

I was invited to teach a class on how to Culture Dairy at the farm last week. I taught those who attended the traditional techniques of making yogurt, creme fraiche, and kefir with raw milk and raw cream. I also went over the benefits of raw versus pasteurized milk and cream.

 

Culturing milk and cream is a very easy thing to do once you know how to do it…and there are a myriad of benefits to doing so. Even organic liquid milk can be hard for the body to digest because of the presence of lactose, a milk sugar, and casein, a milk protein. Culturing milk or cream will predigest the lactose and the casein for you, which will make yogurt, creme fraiche, and kefir easy on your digestive system.

 

Cultured dairy products are a large part of the GAPS (Gut and Psychology SyndromeTM) diet…because they are easy on the digestive system and contribute beneficial bacteria to the digestive tract, as well as live enzymes and soothing lactic acid. Many people who have dairy “sensitivities” and allergies, or “lactose intolerance” stay away from dairy because they think that they cannot tolerate them. But they need not do so.  All cultured dairy…all yogurt, all creme fraiche, all kefir…was meant to be free of lactose…and you can make your own at home, with ease.

 

The quality of being free of lactose is achieved by doing what I call “culturing long”. The vast majority of yogurt or other cultured dairy products that are commercially available are not cultured for a length of time required to ensure that the lactose is pre-digested by the lactic acid producing bacteria, or lacto-bacilli. I learned this when I started teaching others about the GAPS diet, and the Dairy Introduction Protocol of the GAPS diet, i.e., when I was looking for a “therapeutic grade” yogurt for my clients and students. Easy peasy. Just allow your milk or cream to culture at 110 degrees F for a minimum of 24 hours. (I like to suggest that folks allow the culturing to go on for 36 hours or so.) Once you do this, viola’! Lactose-free cultured dairy products! Yes, you, too, can eat yogurt (or creme fraiche, or kefir) again!

 

Here’s a quick recipe for  RAW yogurt. Note that if you choose to use pasteurized milk, you MUST heat it first to 180 degrees F and then cool it to 110 degrees F prior to culturing, in order to kill off anything that may be growing in the milk that was sterilized (pasteurized). Also, be sure to use the highest quality pasteurized milk available: organic, whole, non-homogenized, no fillers, from pastured cows if possible, never UHT.

 

Yogurt

1 quart raw milk

1/3 cup or more yogurt, whey or starter

  • Pour milk into a heavy sauce pot. Slowly heat milk to 110 degrees F on the stove. (A digital thermometer makes it easy to track the temperature.) When it reaches the desired temperature, pour the milk quickly into a thermos and hold for 24 hours-36 hours. (Here is a thermos which will do so, and a canning funnel that will help you pour it with ease.) Alternatively, you may also use an electric plate, dehydrator, or a gas stove with pilot light on only.
  • If you have a yogurt maker, stir and place in yogurt maker for 24 hours. Then place in glass jar and refrigerate.

 

Learn more about the benefits of cultured dairy and more culturing techniques in my latest book! It is available as an ebook, a pdf, and a print edition: Cooking Techniques for the Gut and Psychology Syndrome Diet, Part II: Culturing Dairy.

 

More about biodynamic farming and biodynamic dairy farming

More about Light Root Community Farm

More about Raw Milk

More about the GAPS Diet and how diet can heal your leaky gut and the symptoms that come with it

 

 

Until next time, enjoy!

 

 

 

Please note that the above links to products are affiliate links.

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What is a Leaky Gut, anyway?!

And why should you care?
There’s a lot of talk these days about a “leaky gut”. What is it? Why should you care?

The part of the “gut” that the term refers to is the duodenum of the small intestine. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine into which the stomach dumps its high acid mixture for further digestion and absorption. If that part of the small intestine has holes in it or is damaged, it is termed “leaky”. That’s because it leaks. Into the bloodstream…your bloodstream. The transportation system of the body, the one that carries nutrients to cells, and wastes away from cells…read on.

What leaks out of the small intestine into the blood stream? Large molecules of food that have not been broken down by that damaged area. This is highly problematic for many reasons, a few of which follow:
  1. Your food has not been digested, so your body will not get the nutrients from the food. If this goes on for a long time, you will be malnourished, and suffer the symptoms that that brings.
  2. Your food has not been digested, so large molecules will leak into the bloodstream. If they are protein molecules, the body will recognize them as “foreign proteins”, and launch an immune response. If this goes on for a long time, you will likely develop autoimmune disorders.
  3. Foreign food molecules in the bloodstream mean that you will develop food sensitivities. In the beginning, just a few sensitivities. As time goes on, your body will become highly reactive to many foods.
  4. Toxins will also leak into the bloodstream, which will go to the brain and cause focusing issues, brain fog, and inability to concentrate. If this goes on for a while, ADD, ADHD, OCD, SPD, depression, and mood swings–think bipolar– can develop. Schizophrenia has also been indicated.
Okay, so if all of that is probable with a leaky gut, why not heal it? It’s easy once you know how.
For more information about the best protocol I know to heal AND seal the gut, check out http://www.gaps.me/.
If you would like to learn how to cook to heal your gut, join me for informative, inspiring, and fun classes! I’ll be teaching in Fort Collins, Colorado on Saturday and Sunday, May 16 and 17…”Heal Your Leaky Gut: Cooking for the GAPS Diet”. Easy peasy when you know how. And that’s exactly my intention: to teach you how! More information about the cooking weekend here: http://goo.gl/BlJpQL

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Why Train to Cook for the GAPS Diet?!!

As you may or may not know, cooking for the Gut and Psychology Syndrome diet is not the same as traditional food cooking, a la WAPF or the Nourishing Traditions cookbook by Sally Fallon. In fact, may people who implement the diet from Nourishing Traditions miss many important differences between GAPS and NT. They also make mistakes in the implementation, which may delay healing and actually aggravate symptoms. Some of the symptoms can be severe, like seizures, if you are prone to them! Lesser symptoms include migraines, headaches, nervous tics, rage and outbursts, stimming, brain fog…eczema…!

The GAPS diet is a therapeutic diet…with very specific techniques that were developed to achieve therapeutic results.

One of the biggest mistakes in implementation of the Intro part of the diet is people making bone broth instead of Meat Stock. Bone broth is not part of the Intro Diet. It is not mentioned anywhere in the Intro. (And, in fact, should not be served until AFTER the small intestine, aka the “leaky gut” has been healed. Stay tuned for my new book on the subject–on the how and the why…the Ultimate Guide…!)

For years I have been on list serves for the GAPS diet, and I have read horror stories about well-meaning moms who were trying their best to implement the diet for their severely autistic children and others. The children were refusing to drink the bone broth and their mothers were trying to sneak it in wherever they could. And the children were having severe symptoms, mothers often reporting that symptoms were getting worse, not better. Much of this could have been avoided if there had been a clear understanding of how to cook for the diet.

So…….if you would like to Heal Your Leaky Gut…you must do the Intro of the Diet. All six stages. No bone broth!

I will be teaching the techniques you will need to implement the Intro THIS MAY, Saturday and Sunday, the 16 and 17, in Fort Collins, CO. I have priced the weekend very reasonably so that many can join me!  I hope you will attend!

Here’s a quick testimonial from a Certified GAPS Practitioner who took my training last year:

“I recently attended Monica Corrado’s GAPS cooking series and was blown away by how much I learned (and how much I have been doing and teaching incorrectly), even after being involved in GAPS for almost a year! Although I have been constantly learning since being introduced to the GAPS diet, my certification training did not prepare me nearly enough to guide my clients in the intricacies of food portion of this healing protocol. And as food is the primary healing means of this protocol, it is vital that we understand it well. I now feel better equipped to assist my clients and myself through this healing journey.

I also enjoyed Monica’s high-energy, down-to-earth teaching and techniques. Because of her passion and her clear, memorable explanations, I will be able to remember and pass on what I learned. This is worth just as much as the content, in my opinion. Any resources invested in learning cooking with Monica is well worth it–whether going through the diet yourself or assisting others through it. I would recommend this course to anyone!” Amy Mihaly, FNP, Certified GAPS Practitioner, Loveland, CO of Wholly Guts.

Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride, author of the Gut and Psychology Syndrome, is very familiar with and supportive of my work of training people to cook for the GAPS diet. This training is not currently offered in this way elsewhere. Since Food is the Foundation of the diet, knowing how to cook the food for the diet is absolutely necessary.

I invite you to attend this GAPS Cooking Weekend so that you may deeply and fully know the secrets to implementing the diet and you may implement it with the knowledge and tools you need, as well as the confidence to do so!   Cooking for the GAPS Diet, Saturday and Sunday, May 16-17, 2015…Fort Collins, CO. More information HERE. And for those of you who cannot attend, I happily guide folks through the implementation, in a Wellness Consultation. Find your time here: http://simplybeingwell.com/Consultations.html

be well, all!

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Meat Stock…What it is, and Why I Love it! And you will, too…

I LOVE meat stock. I love meat stock. Meat stock.

I also love bone broth. But meat stock is different than bone broth.

In the world of stock and broth…I am speaking especially to those following the GAPS (Gut and Psychology Syndrome) diet…and those who are consuming a lot of stock on a daily basis…to heal their guts, to take in electrolytic minerals, to supply them with easily absorbed nutrients…somehow “meat stock” has been missed. And what a fatal flaw that is, because meat stock makes your life sooooo much easier-both for those on the GAPS diet, and for those of us other folks, who are just trying to eat well to be well.

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Meat stock is a treasure in the world of nutrient-dense foods… for those of us who are “real foodies”, Weston A. Price-ers, “traditional foodies”…and anyone who is wanting to make the most of their food dollar and their health. Most of us, that is.

The clue is in the words…”meat” stock and “bone” broth. They say a lot about the differences between the two. One is made from meat that has some bones; the other is made from bones. One is cooked for a relatively short time; the other for a very long time, sometimes up to 72 hours!

The gift of meat stock is threefold: it gives you a meal to eat and gelatinous broth to drink. Then it gives you bones you may use as boney bones for bone broth! What a deal!!

So here’s how it’s done. Please take care to use the best quality poultry or meat that you can buy. That means pastured poultry or grass-fed meat. It matters…to the Earth, the animals, and to our bodies.

Meat Stock by Monica

Obtain 2-3 pounds of meat with a bone in it. (This can be legs or thighs or quarters of a chicken or turkey or other fowl…it can be a whole or half chicken cut up. Please include the skin. Lamb shanks…beef shanks…ox tails…meaty neck bones…you get the idea.) Place the meaty bones in a 4-6 quart Dutch oven. (You may also use a crock pot if you prefer; this will lengthen the cook time. See below.)

Cover with water. Usually 1.5-2 quarts of pure, cold water

Add herbs that you love. Fresh rosemary or thyme…tied is best, so you may remove them later…and a slight handful of black or green peppercorns, whole.

Add any vegetables that you love…the usual candidates are carrots, celery and onion, but you could add other veggies if you like–mushrooms, zucchini. (Do not use potatoes or sweet potatoes or any starchy vegetables…they will cloud the stock. Stay away from broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage at this stage, they will turn the stock bitter, and you will wind up throwing it out. Boo. 😦 ) If you use carrots, celery and onion, I would use 3, 3, 1 or 3, 2, 1 or so. Onions can overpower if you add too many.

Bring to a boil over high heat.

Skim and discard any scum that surfaces. 

After you have skimmed most of the scum off of the top of the water, lower the heat to a simmer and cover the pot. (Note: do not spend a lot of time on this. You can lose some of the glorious fat if you do. Hint: wait until there is a good amount of scum on the surface, and then begin to skim. It will look like white foam, and may become quite thick depending on the quality of the bones you used.)

Cook, covered. 

If it is poultry, cook 1.5-2 hours.

If it is lamb, cook 3-4 hours

If it is beef or bison, cook 4-6 hours, or longer (8-10 most)

(If you are using a crock pot, double the hours approximately.)

Serve. 

When you serve, serve the meat and the vegetables and a cup of stock on the side to drink. (Remember to add good quality Celtic sea salt and pastured butter or ghee. The salt will give you trace minerals your body needs, and the healthy fat will help your body to absorb the vitamins from the food.)

Mmmmmmmmmmmmm so good and healing and warming on these cold, snowy Winter days.

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Gelatinous meat stock

NEXT

Save the bones for your next round of bone broth. If you don’t have enough to start a batch right away, (approx. 4 pound of chicken bones or 7 pounds of beef or bison bones), you may wish to store them in a freezer bag once they’ve cooled. For more information about making bone broth from those leftover bones, check out my article, Healing Soups series: Let’s Step Back to Stock https://simplybeingwell.wordpress.com/2012/01/27/healing-soups-series-lets-step-back-to-stock/

Enjoy!!

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Cook those bones! Turkey Stock recipe…!

One of my favorite things about the day after Thanksgiving is putting the carcass and all the bones up for turkey stock! For those of you who would like one, here’s a recipe. Enjoy!!

Ummm Ummm…Turkey Stock!

bones and carcass

skin (unless you prefer to make cracklins with yours!)

pure cold water to cover (depending on the size of the bird and the size of your pot, you will need approximately 4-6 quarts of water. Just be sure that all the bones in the pot are covered by about an inch of water.)

1/2 cup mild vinegar (apple cider vinegar works well)

3 carrots, washed and chopped coarsely

3 celery sticks, washed and chopped coarsely

1 large onion, rinsed and quartered (if it is organic, throw the skins in too–they will lend beautiful color to your stock)

slight handful of black peppercorns

  • Place the bones and skin in a heavy gauge, 18/10 stainless steel stock pot. (The best stock pots are tall and narrow, so that there is not a large surface area which will cause you to lose stock as it simmers.)
  • Cover with pure, cold water. (See above about how much. Too much water will keep your stock from becoming gelatinous when it is cooled in the refrigerator later.)
  • Add vinegar and let stand for 30 minutes-1 hour at room temperature. (The vinegar will work to draw the minerals out of the bones into the stock.)
  • Bring the pot to a boil, skim and discard the scum. (You may use a flat spoon, a ladle or a skimmer–love them!–to skim the scum. Skimming is an art. You don’t want to skim off all the fat with the scum, or you will have a very flat-tasting stock. I suggest waiting until you see a lot of little bubbles on the top of the stock, and then skim for a few minutes. If the bones are good, you will not need to skim very long.)
Turkey stock with scum

Turkey stock with scum. I added the vegetables with the bones, so I’ll have fun skimming around the veggies!

  • Add the vegetables. (You may choose to add the vegetables prior to bringing the pot to a boil. Either way is fine–earlier or later in the process. If you place the vegetables in with the bones, you will have the pleasure of skimming around all the veggies. Some people love that…some would rather put them in after skimming the scum, so they don’t have to go around them.)
Skimming the scum off turkey stock

Skimming the scum off the turkey stock. I am using a skimmer, but you could also use a spoon or ladle, which I did for years!

  • Bring the pot to a boil again if you just added vegetables.
  • Lower the heat to a simmer. The temperature that your stock cooks at is important. You will be at a perfect temperature when you see movement under a relatively still top of the stock.
  • Simmer for 25-35 hours or so. (Note: You do not need to leave the pot on continuously if you do not want to. You may use what I call “cumulative time”; that is, adding up the time you simmer it. Each time you turn it off, just remember to bring the pot to a boil upon returning and skim and discard the scum. Then turn the heat back down to a simmer. 🙂 )
  • You will know that the stock is “done” when all of the cartilage has been dissolved and you can crumble the bones in your hands with light pressure.
  • Strain the stock and cool to room temperature before placing it in the refrigerator. Hint: a long and shallow pan will allow the stock to cool more quickly because of the increased surface area.

Here’s what the stock should look like when it is cooled:

cooled turkey stock

Cooled turkey stock! The top layer is fat; very good for cooking!

 

Cooled stock in hand

When the stock is truly gelatinous, you can cut a cube and hold it in your hand!

Enjoy!

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Wild Rice Stuffing with Sausage…Gluten-free Thanksgiving Delight!

Hi all!

First of all, please know I am thankful for all of YOU!

I thought I’d share the recipe I’ll be serving on our Thanksgiving table, as I have often been asked for a bread-free, gluten-free, real food stuffing for Thanksgiving. I hope you enjoy it!

Wild Rice Stuffing with Sausage!

serves 4-6

2 cups chicken or turkey stock

1 cup wild rice or wild rice blend (Lundberg’s is a good choice!)

¾ tsp sea salt

1-1.5 pounds bulk sage breakfast sausage (can also use a combination of sweet and hot Italian sausages either bulk or link with the casings removed)

1 large onion, chopped medium

6 stalks celery, chopped fine

1 1/4 sticks butter, divided

3 medium Granny Smith or other tart apples, peeled, cored, small dice

3/4 cup raisins or dried cranberries, unsweetened

1/2 cup packed fresh sage leaves, chopped first or 1.5 T dried sage

1/2 cup chicken stock

Salt and fresh ground pepper to taste

  • Bring stock to a boil and skim any scum. Add wild rice or wild rice blend and salt, and bring to a boil again. Reduce heat to low and cook covered until rice is tender and has split open, about an hour. Drain well in a colander and set aside in a medium bowl. (You may retain the stock from the colander to use later.) Note: if you use a wild rice blend, you will not have any stock to drain!
  • Sauté sausage in very large skillet over medium-high heat until cooked through, breaking into pieces with spoon, about 15 minutes. Using slotted spoon, transfer to large bowl; add wild rice.
  • Add onions and celery to same skillet and sauté in the sausage fat until golden brown, about 10 minutes; remove and add to sausage and wild rice mixture.
  • Melt 1/4 cup butter in same skillet over medium-high heat. Add apples and sauté until tender, about 8 minutes; mix apples into wild rice mixture.
  • Melt 1/4 cup butter in same skillet. Add sage and sauté until dark green, about 2 minutes. Mix sage and butter into wild rice mixture. (Alternatively, melt the butter and pour into wild rice mixture, adding ground sage and stirring well.) Season with salt and pepper.
  • Add raisins or dried cranberries to wild rice mixture.
  • Butter 15 x 10 x 2-inch glass baking dish. Spoon wild rice mixture into prepared dish; drizzle with 1/2 cup chicken stock. Cover with foil. (Can be prepared 4 hours ahead. Cover and refrigerate.)
  • Preheat oven to 350°F. Bake stuffing covered until heated through, about 1 hour. Uncover and bake until beginning to brown, about 10 minutes. Now you have stuffing!

Note: You may also stuff the turkey with this mixture. Just place any that does not fit into the cavity in a buttered glass baking dish and bake as above. Stuffing the turkey will increase the amount of time you will need to bake the turkey.

Note: If you are looking for butter substitutes because of allergies, you may consider: ghee (no lactose or casein) lard, or refined coconut oil (which will not have any coconut flavor) or a mixture of them

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